- Published: 29 July 2016
Small and Medium Practices (SMP) still a long way to the top of the class
The commercial banks will soon start publishing their abridged audited accounts for the year ended 31 December 2015; in the New Vision and Daily Monitor. What will be evident is that the external auditors will be one of the Top 5 firms (PwC, KPMG, EY, Deloitte and PKF). For purposes of this article, the author has restricted himself to just 2014 and 2015 but a more expensive research will be extended to 20 years back.
In December 2013, the Bank of Uganda (BOU) published a list of 56 auditing firms that had passed the test and were thus considered suitable to audit the financial statements of commercial banks, credit institutions and microfinance deposit taking institutions (Tier 1,2 and 3). The list was compiled by BOU after the auditing firms have submitted their pre-qualifications documents by the due date. The author had not yet established the total number of auditing firms that had submitted their pre-qualifications documents to BOU.
Suffice to know that those 56 firms were all duly authorised firms approved by the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda (ICPAU). By that time, the total number of auditing firms approved by ICPAU was close to 190, meaning that about one-third had been pre-qualified by BOU.
However, the number of Tier 1-2 financial institutions is limited and not all the firms will get an audit. The table below shows that out of 27 Tier 1-3 financial institutions, only five of the 56 firms got an audit for the year ended 31 December 2014. The top three of PwC, KPMG and EY had the lion’s share auditing 22 of those financial institutions which constituted 97% of the total assets of that population – which stood at UGX 18 trillion (US$ 5,300 million). Compare this to assets of about 90 members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions of Uganda (AMFIU) which added up to between US$300-400million.
Source: Author’s own compilation from published accounts in newspapers
The story of dominance by the top firms may not be very different come 2015.
Of particular interest are the following statistics:
• Out of the 56 auditing firms that were on the pre-qualification list in 2014, a total of 18 were unsuccessful in their bids for 2015. The author will attempt to find out why that was the case. It could be that the audit firm did not pass the BOU requirements or they did not meet the deadline or did not submit a bid altogether; these facts will be established;
• For the year 2015, BOU pre-qualified a total of 64 audit firms. Notably, a total of 26 new audit firms were added onto the list which was a welcome boost to those firms. The author will in due course engage the BOU to find out the criteria for inclusion or exclusion of an audit firm from the pre-qualification list; and
• Out of the 64 audit firms pre-qualified for 2015, a total of 22 of them were sole proprietorships. Originally, there was a view that only audit firms with at least two partners would be eligible for BOU pre-qualification, but that assertion has now been proven incorrect.
Is the situation in Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda any different?
Kenya has over 500 auditing firms registered with the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya, but with 56 commercial banks, mortgage financial institutions and microfinance banks. On the other hand, Tanzania has close to 150 auditing firms registered with the National Board for Accountants and Auditors of Tanzania, but with 44 commercial banks, finance leasing companies and other financial institutions. Last but not least, Rwanda has close to 35 auditing firms registered with the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Rwanda, but with 17 commercial banks.
In Q2 2016, the author will have established whether the financial institutions in Tanzania, Kenya and Rwanda primarily also use appoint the top firms of PwC, KPMG, EY and Deloitte as their external auditors or is it a good mixture of the top firms and SMPs.
Do SMP have a chance on the Tier 1-3 cake?
The author thinks the SMPs have a good chance but one would need to dig deep into the critical success factors why the Tier 1-3 financial institutions continue to prefer PwC, KPMG, EY and Deloitte as their external auditors. In the meantime, the SMP have to be contented with auditing forex bureau which number over 200; non-deposit taking microfinance and SACCOs which could be approaching 2000 in number across Uganda. Should BOU consider regulating these Tier 4 institutions in the future, then the auditor’s pre-qualification list will end up being the same as the ICPAU list in its entirety.